从乔布斯到爱迪生:12个科技奇才,小时候都干了什么了不起的事情

原创 2015-10-01 福布斯中文 福布斯中文网

作者|Hilary Brueck

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上周,14岁的艾哈迈德·穆罕穆德(Ahmed Mohamed)因携带自制闹钟到学校而被捕,这个消息引起了国际社会的谴责。

这也促使从奥巴马总统(President Obama)到马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)的社会各界人士呼吁,更多像穆罕穆德这样的孩子要继续保持探索精神。

对于富有好奇心的年轻科学爱好者在探索周围世界的过程中被“逮住”,穆罕穆德并非第一人。

值得庆幸的是,很多人继续取得了一些非常令人瞩目的成果:或是成为探索人类意识方面的先驱,或是发明沿用至今的计算机编程语言,或是成为“有史以来最伟大的化石猎人”。

在这里,我们对包括奈尔·德葛拉司·泰森(Neil deGrasse Tyson)和史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)在内的12个科技奇才的生平事迹进行了回顾,看看他们小时候都干了什么了不起的事情:

格蕾丝·霍普(Grace Hopper)拆闹钟
格蕾丝·霍普博士为斯佩里-兰德公司(Sperry Rand Corporation)旗下的雷明顿-兰德公司发明了电子计算机自动化编程。(图片来源:美联社)

海军准将格蕾丝·霍普从7岁的时候就开始了自己的工程师生涯,当时她拆开了自己家中的所有闹钟,试图搞明白它们的工作原理。

霍普在1969年当选为首届“计算机科学年度人物”,她因对计算机编程语言(包括至今仍被用于商业和金融领域的计算机语言COBOL)的贡献而广受赞誉。

传说,在1947年的时候,一只蛾子飞进了霍普当时正在研发的一台早期计算机,此后她发明了“de-bug”这个词语(译注:原意是“去掉虫子”,在计算机领域引申为“消除故障”)。

托马斯·爱迪生(Thomas Edison)的化学列车
托马斯·爱迪生(图片来源:美联社)

在爱迪生发明电灯泡之前,他在火车上工作。

12岁的时候,爱迪生在一列火车上售卖糖果和报纸,他很快在一个行李车厢当中建立起自己的小小化学实验室。

不过,爱迪生的火车实验很快伴随磷试剂起火而夭折,他自己也在火车抵达下一站后被赶了下来。

奥利弗·萨克斯(Oliver Sacks)的洗衣房实验室
2009年6月3日,神经科学家奥利弗·萨克斯博士在纽约市的哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)发表演讲。改编自他1973年著作《觉醒》(Awakenings)的影片获得了奥斯卡奖提名。(图片来源:盖蒂图片社/克里斯·麦格拉思)

上个月,神经科学家兼作家奥利弗·萨克斯因肝癌去世,享年82岁。

他素以不同寻常的案例研究和关于人类大脑和意识的雄辩著作而闻名。

不过,在几十年前,还是一个英格兰小男孩的他就已经踏足实验室了——他在自家的洗衣房从事各种化学实验。

在《纽约客》(New Yorker)1999年的一篇文章中,萨克斯写道:“最终,在有一天我把恶臭(和毒性很大)的硫化氢搞得满屋子都是之后,他们坚持让我安装一个小通风窗,配备用于腐蚀性液体的特制排水道,并且要求我在进行危险实验时佩戴手套和护目镜。”

霍默·希卡姆(Homer Hickham)在车库造火箭
1948年,小说家霍默·希卡姆通过煤黑色电话跟自己的父亲通话。在十几岁的时候,希卡姆曾开始学习如何在自家车库建造火箭。(图片来源:homerhickam.com)

小说家霍默·希卡姆曾是美国宇航局(NASA)的科学家,他在自己的畅销书《火箭男孩》(Rocket Boys)中记载了自己小时候建造火箭的经历:在十几岁的时候,他利用从后门廊找到的一些铝管开始建造火箭。

希卡姆写道:“我们不得不某个地方开始,无论是成功或失败,然后建造我们知道的东西。”

化石猎人玛丽·安宁(Mary Anning)
玛丽·安宁(图片来源:B.J. 邓恩)

在还是孩子的时候,玛丽·安宁就开始沿着莱姆悬崖挖掘恐龙化石。

不过,她这样搜寻化石不仅仅是为了乐趣,她还在赚外快补贴家用:在18世纪末和19世纪初,前往莱姆附近海滩的游客会购买化石当作纪念品。

1811年,12岁的安宁很快找到了第一个完整的鱼龙骨架。

英格兰自然历史博物馆(Natural History Museum in England)把她称为“有史以来最伟大的化石猎人”。

罗纳德·麦克奈尔(Ronald McNair)大闹图书馆
罗纳德·麦克奈尔(图片来源:美联社)

在美国宇航局宇航员罗纳德·麦克奈尔成为著名激光物理学家或进入太空之前,9岁的他在从南卡罗来纳州湖城本地一家图书馆借书时已经“青史留名”。

1959年,图书馆不肯把几本书借给麦克奈尔,他拒绝离开,这促使图书管理员提醒他:“我们不借书给黑鬼。”

图书馆管理员打电话叫来了警察(和麦克奈尔的妈妈),之后他被允许把几本科学和微积分书籍借回家。

后来,麦克奈尔成为美国宇航局送入太空的第二个黑人宇航员。

他是1986年“挑战者号”(Challenger)太空任务的机组成员,飞机失事后丧生,享年35岁。

斯里尼瓦沙·拉马努金(Srinivasa Ramanujan)自学数学
斯里尼瓦沙·拉马努金(图片来源:康拉德·雅各布斯/奥博沃尔法赫图片集)

当斯里尼瓦沙·拉马努金还是印度农村地区的一位少年时,一位寄住在他家的外国留学生借给他一本三角学的教科书。

主要依靠自学,拉马努金为数学贡献了数千种非常规的新定理和公式。

他英年早逝,享年32岁。

玛丽·萨默维尔(Mary Somerville)对数学的“非淑女式”热爱
玛丽·萨默维尔(图片来源:大英图书馆)

玛丽·萨默维尔的大部分数学和科学知识同样是从书本上学来的。

但是她的很多家人并不赞成,称这种在18世纪晚期进行的学习是“非淑女式的”。

萨默维尔后来撰写了沿用一百多年时间的数学和科学教科书,拿她自己的话来说,把数学和科学翻译成“通俗易懂的语言”。

奈尔·德葛拉司·泰森(Neil deGrasse Tyson)拒绝卡尔·萨根(Carl Sagan)
2015年5月31日,在第74届皮博迪奖年度颁奖典礼上,天体物理学家兼《宇宙》节目(COSMOS)主持人奈尔·德葛拉司·泰森拿着奖章摆造型。(图片来源:盖蒂图片社/皮博迪奖/迈克·科波拉)

奈尔·德葛拉司·泰森申请康奈尔大学(Cornell)的入学作文“浸润着对宇宙的兴趣”(他的原话,不是我说的),以至于他在参加入学面试时得到了跟卡尔·萨根亲自会面的机会。

萨根甚至开车把泰森送回汽车站,并让后者记下他的号码,以便在困于雪地或需要地方落脚时打电话向他求助。

不过,尽管萨根提供了这些条件,但少年泰森并未进入康奈尔大学就读。

他要按照科学行事,按照他自己制作的决策矩阵,只有一所大学贡献了《科学美国人》(Scientific American)文章的大部分作者。泰森非进哈佛大学不可。

埃瓦里斯特·伽罗瓦(Evariste Galois):参加决斗的数学家
埃瓦里斯特·伽罗瓦

在20岁的时候,法国人埃瓦里斯特·伽罗瓦忙得不可开交:一边发表关于连分式和多项式方程的论文,一边熬夜学习数学,同时还要为一些革命性的决斗做准备。

在要了他命的最后一次决斗前夜,伽罗瓦彻夜未眠,他写信给朋友谈论自己的想法和数学手稿。1832年5月30日,他在决斗中腹部中枪,隔日不治身亡。

儿童天文学家玛丽亚·米切尔(Maria Mitchell)
玛丽亚·米切尔

在12岁的时候,玛丽亚·米切尔跟爸爸一道记录了自己经历的第一次日蚀。

到29岁时,她成为发现以自己名字命名彗星的首个美国人(米切尔小姐彗星)。

米切尔是女童教育的坚定倡导者,她在17岁时开办了一所学校,向女童教授数学和科学。

史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)的“免费”电话
2011年6月6日,苹果前任首席执行官史蒂夫·乔布斯在旧金山的苹果全球开发者大会上发布iCloud存储系统。(图片来源:彭博社/大卫·保罗·莫里斯)

在14岁的时候,史蒂夫·乔布斯就已经在鼓捣电话了,他使用一种能够充当个人路由器的“蓝盒子”打免费长途电话。

后来,乔布斯把盗拨电话称为一个“技术挑战”。38年之后,iPhone诞生了。
译|何无鱼 校|Lily

Top 100 Children’s Books

The best children's stories have a shelf life of eternity. From 19th-century classics to contemporary sensations, from picture books for wee ones to tomes for teens, here are 100 not-to-be-missed titles for kids

Stephanie Simpson Mclellan

brownbear

2- to 4- year olds

Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See?
by Bill Martin, Jr. and illustrated by Eric Carle, 1967. A page-turner that ignites in readers the desire to glimpse a blue horse, a purple cat and the next brilliant thing that follows.

Can’t You Sleep, Little Bear?
by Martin Waddell and illustrated by Barbara Firth, 1992. Warm watercolours capture Big Bear’s tender attempts to banish all dark from the cave so Little Bear feels safe enough to sleep.

The Carrot Seed
by Ruth Krauss and illustrated by Crockett Johnson, 1945. Despite warnings that the seed he planted will not grow, a little boy’s patience and self-confidence are rewarded with a carrot as big as himself.

Chicka Chicka Boom Boom
by Bill Martin, Jr. and John Archambault, and illustrated by Lois Ehlert, 1989. Infectious, playful rhyme sends the alphabet on a romp up a coconut tree.

Goodnight Moon
by Margaret Wise Brown and illustrated by Clement Hurd, 1947. Wise Brown’s quiet poetry has lulled generations of children to sleep and enticed millions of families to hunt for the mouse on every page.

Grumpy Bird
by Jeremy Tankard, 2007. When Bird wakes up, he’s too grumpy to eat, play or even fly, and instead starts stomping through the forest on foot. But his oblivious, happy-go-lucky friends stick to him like glue, turning Bird’s walk into an inadvertent game of follow-the-leader that makes Bird even grumpier.

Guess How Much I Love You
by Sam McBratney and illustrated by Anita Jeram, 1995. It is impossible not to sigh and aw-w-w over the sweet illustrations of Little Nutbrown Hare in various stages of sleep and play as he and Big Nutbrown Hare describe their love for each other.

Maisy the Mouse series
by Lucy Cousins, 1990. According to Cousins, Maisy “drew herself” one day when Cousins was doodling, and has since become one of the best-loved characters in children’s books.

Max and Ruby series
by Rosemary Wells, 1979. The illustrations of curious three-year-old Max and bossy seven-year-old Ruby incite as much fun as the words.

More More More, Said the Baby
by Vera B. Williams, 1990. Three stories of crazy-for-you affection, starting with Little Guy being chased by his daddy, who catches Little Guy and throws him high, swings him all around and gives him a kiss right in the middle of his belly button. “More,” laughs Little Guy. “More. More. More.” The book explodes with colour, each word an assortment of hues, each baby uniquely adored.

Night Cars
by Teddy Jam (Matt Cohen) and illustrated by Eric Beddows, 1988. Lyrical prose and rich illustrations portray a tired father’s imaginative explanations of the nighttime noises outside the window. Billed as the Canadian Goodnight Moon.

The Real Mother Goose
illustrated by Blanche Fisher Wright, 1916. Despite the plentiful variety of nursery rhyme editions that surface regularly, it is this version, with its beloved illustrations, that is still going strong after nearly a century.

Sam Who Never Forgets
by Eve Rice, 1977. While he has lovingly tended to all the other animals, it appears that Sam the zookeeper has forgotten to feed Elephant. Will Elephant have his hay?

The Tale of Peter Rabbit
by Beatrix Potter, 1902. This quintessential cautionary tale, with its intimate, conversational tone, humorously warns young readers about the perils of misbehaving.

The Very Hungry Caterpillar
by Eric Carle, 1969. Layered under the imaginative die-cut pages are lessons about counting, the days of the week and the magic of metamorphosis.

Where’s Spot?
by Eric Hill, 1980. The first lift-the-flap children’s book has toddlers readily identifying with the rascal puppy Spot, who is hiding from his mother, Sally.

4- to 8-year-olds

Alligator Pie
by Dennis Lee and illustrated by Frank Newfield, 1974. Margaret Laurence once said of Lee’s inaugural poetry collection that “you can almost hear the skipping ropes slapping on the sidewalk.”

The Cat in the Hat
by Dr. Seuss, 1957. Written in response to an article
in Life magazine that lamented the boring reading lessons in schools, The Cat in the Hat employed 223 words from primary reading lists and single-handedly killed “Dick and Jane.”

Curious George
by Margret and H.A. Rey, 1941. George embodies the irresistibly lovable little monkey in all small children.

Doctor De Soto
by William Steig, 1982. An unscrupulous fox wonders if it would be “shabby” to eat his dentist once his toothache is cured, then finds himself outsmarted by the clever Doctor De Soto.

Franklin in the Dark
by Paulette Bourgeois and illustrated by Brenda Clark, 1986. The story of a turtle who’s afraid to climb into his own shell (inspired by the M*A*S*H rerun in which Hawkeye Pierce described his claustro-phobia) reassures kids it’s OK for them to be afraid.

Frog and Toad series
by Arnold Lobel, 1970. Grumpy Toad and carefree Frog are best friends. And, while Frog’s optimism seems like the glue that holds them together, Toad has his own shining moments. Once, finding Frog looking too green, Toad goes to great pains to make him feel better. The friends’ great loyalty guides them throughout the four books of their adventures.

Henry and Mudge
by Cynthia Rylant and illustrated by Suçie Stevenson, 1987. In this winsome first-reader (the first in the series), single child Henry realizes how much he loves his drooling, 180-pound dog, Mudge (who grew out of seven collars in a row), when Mudge goes missing.

The Hockey Sweater
by Roch Carrier, translated by Sheila Fischman and illustrated by Sheldon Cohen, 1979. A classic Canadian parable, based on a real incident in Carrier’s childhood, finds humour and horror in the protagonist’s predicament of having to wear the hockey sweater of the rival Maple Leafs.

Little Bear
by Else Homelund Minarik and illustrated by Maurice Sendak, 1957. Little Bear’s relationships help him learn about love in this warm and witty series.

Love You Forever
by Robert Munsch and illustrated by Sheila McGraw, 1986. This sentimental favourite showcases a mother’s undying devotion to her child, which eventually comes full circle.

Madeline
by Ludwig Bemelmans, 1939. It is a lovely moment of drama and fun when Miss Clavel discovers 11 wailing little girls who yearn to have appendicitis just like Madeline.

Make Way for Ducklings
by Robert McCloskey, 1941. A delightful story about a duck family in Boston’s Public Garden that crosses a heavily trafficked street with the help of the police department.

Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel
by Virginia Lee Burton, 1939. The spirited telling of how a steam shovel named Mary Anne is captivating for its unabashed delight in all things mechanical.

The Paper Bag Princess
by Robert Munsch and illustrated by Michael Martchenko, 1980. Princess Elizabeth rescues, and then dumps, handsome Prince Ronald, who disapproves of the paper bag she wears instead of burnt clothes.

The Polar Express
by Chris Van Allsburg, 1985. The majestic illustrations of this Caldecott Medal winner illuminate the simple, heartwarming story about how believing in Santa Claus keeps us young at heart.

Scaredy Squirrel
by Mélanie Watt, 2006. Squirrel has his share of wacky fears, which he unwittingly confronts in a laugh-out-loud way that inspires young readers to take small risks of their own.

Something from Nothing
by Phoebe Gilman, 1992. A rich retelling of an old Jewish folk tale in which Joseph’s cherished baby blanket is transformed into successively smaller but wonderful items over the years.

Stanley’s Party
by Linda Bailey and illustrated by Bill Slavin, 2003. Bored canine Stanley discovers that nothing actually happens when he sneaks up on the forbidden couch, and so dancing, fridge-raiding and a full-blown party ensue.

Stella, Star of the Sea
by Marie-Louise Gay, 1999. Stella’s irrepressible “leap before you look” and “invent if you don’t know” philosophies make for some creative explanations to her little brother Sam about the sea.

The Story About Ping
by Marjorie Flack and illustrated by Kurt Wiese, 1933. Spunky little duck Ping is accidentally left behind on the Yangtze River one night, where his scary misadventures prompt him to be on time the next evening.

The Story of Babar
by Jean De Brunhoff, 1933. A young orphaned elephant rises from wild animal to the toast of high society (in a smart pressed suit) and ultimately to king of the elephants.

The Story of Ferdinand
by Munro Leaf and illustrated by Robert Lawson, 1936. In a lovely testament to self-assured individuality, Ferdinand the bull prefers relaxing under a cork tree and smelling the flowers to the snorting and butting of his peers.

Where the Wild Things Are
by Maurice Sendak, 1963. After threatening to eat his mother up, Max is sent to his room. Once there, he sails off to where the wild things are. He becomes king of these fearsome, and goofy, creatures, leads them on a wild rumpus, then returns home to a hot supper. The honest and uncompromising nature of childhood lives inside the carefully crafted pages and vivid illustrations of this wonderful and much-loved book.

Zoom at Sea
by Tim Wynne-Jones and illustrated by Eric Beddows, 1983. When a cat who loves water finds a map to the sea, he has a thrilling, wholly original adventure.

7- to 10-year-olds

Bunnicula
by Deborah Howe and James Howe, 1979. The family dog recounts how the family cat becomes obsessed with saving everyone from a suspected vampire bunny.

Catwings
by Ursula K. Le Guin and illustrated by S.D. Schindler, 1988. Four winged kittens take flight to escape the filth and perils of city life, and discover high adventure and a safe home in the country.

The Cricket in Times Square
by George Selden and illustrated by Garth Williams, 1960. When a country cricket from Connecticut is accidentally transported to the 42nd Street subway station in New York City, he finds friends, shelter and fame.

Henry Huggins
by Beverly Cleary, 1950. Set in small-town America in the 1950s, this tale of eight-year-old Henry’s antics with his new-found mutt, Ribsy, evokes a simpler time and plenty of laughs.

Jacob Two-Two Meets the Hooded Fang
by Mordecai Richler, 1975. Richler’s delightfully dreadful plot, heaped with cheeky humour, finds two-plus-two-plus-two-year-old Jacob in prison for the unpardonable sin of insulting a grown-up.

The Magic Treehouse series
by Mary Pope Osborne, 1992. An addictive blend of fascinating facts, time travel and easy-to-read short chapters where books are the portal to adventurous time periods.

Mr. Popper’s Penguins
by Richard Atwater and Florence Atwater, 1938. Eleven “orking” and “gooking” penguins descend on the Popper household to find fame, fortune and more than a little chaos.

The Mouse and the Motorcycle
by Beverly Cleary, 1965. Ralph the mouse’s elation that he can actually ride the toy motorcycle of his new human friend, Keith, sparks a night of lively, comic adventure.

My Father’s Dragon
by Ruth Stiles Gannett and illustrated by Ruth Chrisman Gannett, 1948. Nine-year-old Elmer Elevator travels to Wild Island to rescue an enslaved baby dragon, armed with two dozen pink lollipops, some rubber bands, chewing gum and a fine-toothed comb. First book in a trilogy.

Ramona Quimby, Age 8
by Beverly Cleary, 1981. Ramona gets herself into a ton of hilarious trouble with her inability to compromise and her fierce need to be understood, qualities young readers readily see in themselves.

Shredderman
by Wendelin Van Draanen, 2004. A thoroughly enjoyable romp with a modern superhero, class nerd Nolan Byrd, who assumes a secret identity to expose class bully Bubba Bixby.

Sideways Stories from Wayside School
by Louis Sachar, 1978. Thirty quirky short stories about an unconventional school with horrifyingly delicious characters such as the ghastly Mrs. Gorf, who turns kids into apples until she is turned into one herself…and is then eaten!

Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing
by Judy Blume, 1972. The mischievous meddling and annoying cuteness of Peter’s little brother Fudge will resonate with anyone who’s been bitten by sibling rivalry.

The Iron Man
by Ted Hughes, 1968. Nobody knows where the giant Iron Man came from. With a head as big as a bedroom and an insatiable appetite for metal, he enrages the local farmers by eating their tractors and threshers. Recognizing that the giant is simply hungry and not evil, a young boy named Hogarth befriends him just in time for the Iron Man to conquer a monstrous space dragon that arrives to destroy the world. This is not simply a rock ’em, sock ’em boy’s war story. Former British poet laureate Hughes (also famous for his tragic marriage to the American poet Sylvia Plath) writes with spare, evocative language to tell an entrancing story, part science fiction and part fairy tale, about the seductive power of evil and how peace can defeat it.

The Spiderwick Chronicles
by Tony DiTerlizzi and Holly Black, 2003. Thirteen-year-old Mallory and nine-year-old twins Jared and Simon are forced to move with their mother into the dilapidated Spiderwick Estate belonging to their great-aunt Lucinda. Once there, they discover a curious field guide to an array of mythical creatures, and find themselves sucked into the dark and dangerous world of faeries. Detailed illustrations, deliciously cryptic clues and three strong protagonists (bossy Mallory, eccentric Simon and troubled Jared) combine for a wholly satisfying read.

The Velveteen Rabbit
by Margery Williams and illustrated by William Nicholson, 1922. The charming and sentimental story about how a favourite toy becomes real when loved to pieces.

Where the Sidewalk Ends
by Shel Silverstein, 1974. Silverstein’s first collection of children’s poetry, at once clever, funny and profound, dares all dreamers to try extraordinary things.

Winnie the Pooh
by A. A. Milne and illustrated by Ernest H. Shepard, 1926. Generations of kids have been enchanted by Milne’s whimsical stories about the beloved “bear of little brain” and his friends, who find wonder and mystery in the most ordinary things.

8- to 12-year-olds

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
by Mark Twain, 1876. Though more than a century old Twain’s self-professed “hymn” to boyhood still captures the abandon of youth.

Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland
by Lewis Carroll, 1865. C.S. Lewis said no book is worth reading at age 10 that is not equally worth reading at age 50. Carroll’s classic stands this test of time, as adult and child alike identify with poor Alice, who grows and shrinks and tries to make sense of her nonsensical world.

Anne of Green Gables
by Lucy Maud Montgomery, 1908. The exuberance with which the feisty red-haired orphan accidentally dyes her hair green and bakes a cake full of liniment pulls us headfirst into her quirky hurricane.

The Borrowers series
by Mary Norton, 1952. The idea that tiny people called borrowers live beneath the floorboards of our houses, frame postage stamps as art and use matchboxes for drawers is the charming anchor for these daring adventures.

Bridge to Terabithia
by Katherine Paterson, 1977. In this powerful story of friendship and loss, the imaginary kingdom of Terabithia is where Jess and Leslie learn to cope with life when it’s not so beautiful.

Bud, Not Buddy
by Christopher Paul Curtis, 1999. Guided by his own “Rules and Things for Having a Funner Life and Making a Better Liar Out of Yourself,” 10-year-old Bud Caldwell’s half-baked odyssey to flee his abusive foster home and find his supposed father will make you laugh and cry.

Charlotte’s Web
by E. B. White and illustrated by Garth Williams, 1952. In the beloved story of a little pig named Wilbur who is saved from an untimely death by Charlotte the spider, readers are transported into the barn which smells of the “perspiration of tired horses and the wonderful sweet breath of patient cows.” White’s lyrical prose lulls his readers into a celebration of senses, encouraging them to find the wonder in every moment. The story confronts the reality that the passage of time — and friends — is inevitable, and portrays change not as a tragedy, but as a door to new opportunities.

The Chronicles of Prydain series
by Lloyd Alexander, 1964. The urgent quest in this mythical world is pursued by fallible protagonists and buoyed with more than a pinch of humour.

Confessions of Georgia Nicolson series
by Louise Rennison, 1999. The diary entries of shamelessly self-absorbed but lovable 14-year-old Georgia Nicolson are snort-out-loud funny.

Harry Potter series
J.K. Rowling, 1997. Perhaps just as magical as his wizarding abilities is the way Harry Potter took the literary world by storm and got kids (and their parents) reading again.

Hatchet
by Gary Paulsen, 1987. A young boy survives a plane crash and goes on to spend 54 days — filled with obstacles and triumphs — alone in the wilderness.

Holes
by Louis Sachar, 1998. Stanley Yelnats’ no-good-dirty-rotten-pig-stealing great-great-grandfather started a family curse that is lifted when events as palindromic as Stanley’s name lead him to retrace his ancestor’s tracks.

The Indian in the Cupboard
by Lynne Reid Banks, 1980. The excitement Omri feels when his toy Indian is brought magically to life is complicated by his growing awareness that the real world presents grave danger to tiny Little Bear.

Inkheart
by Cornelia Funke, 2003. Meggie’s father unwittingly reads some nightmarish villains out of a book and into the real world in this dark and gripping fantasy.

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
by C.S. Lewis, 1950. J.R.R. Tolkien argued that publishing the chronicles of Narnia would hurt Lewis’s reputation as a serious writer, but few can resist the magic door into a world where animals talk and epic battles are waged.

Little House on the Prairie series
by Laura Ingalls Wilder and illustrated by Garth Williams, 1932. The physical and emotional struggles of pioneer life captured in these books were largely lost in the TV series, as was the unique character of Pa, truly larger than life on the page.

The Little Prince
by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, 1943. A timeless tale that explores the essence of love and loneliness while gently exposing the foibles of adulthood.

Peter Pan
by J.M. Barrie, 1911. The “innocent and heartless” tale of Neverland and the Lost Boys, with pirates, crocodiles and the tantalizing concept of never growing up.

Redwall
by Brian Jacques, 1986. This epic adventure of the mice of Redwall Abbey contains the elements of all grand quests: tragedy and comedy, danger and wonder, a despicable villain and an inspiring hero.

The Secret Garden
by Frances Hodgson Burnett, 1911. The story of how spoiled, ill-tempered Mary and lonely, bedridden Colin are transformed through their efforts to bring a mysterious, abandoned garden to life.

A Series of Unfortunate Events series
by Lemony Snicket (Daniel Handler), 1999. The unrelenting bad fortune that plagues the Baudelaire orphans propels you through these books’ dark, droll pages like a rubbernecker at a car crash.

The Sheep-Pig
by Dick King-Smith, 1983. When Fly the sheepdog adopts Babe the pig and saves him from the family freezer by teaching him how to herd sheep, Babe teaches Fly about friendship. This book is the basis for the beloved family movie Babe.

Silverwing
by Kenneth Oppel, 1997. Daring to look at the sun, Shade (a silverwing bat) endangers his colony and is ruthlessly pursued by owls and vampire bats.

Tuck Everlasting
by Natalie Babbitt, 1975. After drinking from a magic spring, the Tuck family became immortal — a fact that 10-year-old Winnie Foster discovers after stumbling upon the eternally 17-year-old Jesse Tuck in the woods one morning. Compelled to make Winnie understand that the family legacy is more curse than blessing and must be kept secret, the Tucks steal her away. While Winnie’s affection for the family grows — as does her infatuation with handsome Jesse — she also comes to see that living forever means that life passes you by.

The Wind in the Willows
by Kenneth Grahame and illustrated by Eric Kincaid, 1908. The madcap adventures of Mole, Ratty, Toad and Badger expose lessons of friendship and morality with rich metaphor and burlesque comedy.

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
by L. Frank Baum, 1900. Described as the first truly American fairy tale, Baum’s classic story sends us on a weird and wonderful journey to learn that sometimes you have to get lost in order to be found.

A Wrinkle in Time
by Madeleine L’Engle, 1962. Likeable characters who stumble and grow make this more than just great science fiction.

12+ year-olds

The Book Thief
by Markus Zusak, 2005. Liesel Meminger steals her first book at the age of nine from her little brother’s grave, and her further thefts punctuate the pivotal points in her life during the Second World War. Her story is narrated by Death, who is burdened, tender, stoic and haunted by humans who can be “so glorious and so ugly.” Zusak’s language is breathtaking, with an image or phrase to savour on every page. A stunning, life-altering book.

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas
by John Boyne, 2006. A chilling, heartbreaking, punch-in-the-gut story set in 1942 Germany about a little boy whose father goes to work at a desolate camp the boy thinks is called “Out-With.”

Dust
by Arthur Slade, 2001. A darkly gripping novel with plotting and pacing reminiscent of the best of Alfred Hitchcock and Stephen King.

Eragon
by Christopher Paolini, 2003. Paolini was 15 when he wrote this story of a farm boy who discovers he is a Dragon Rider, destined to defeat the Empire’s evil king.

The Giver
by Lois Lowry, 1993. This Newbery Medal winner about a world devoid of memory and emotion has been a cultural lightning rod, both studied in and banned from middle schools throughout North America, with themes on challenging authority and questioning adult rule.

His Dark Materials trilogy
by Philip Pullman, 1995. In this complex fantasy, Lyra navigates her dangerous world, which involves missing children and the mysterious Dust.

The Hobbit
by J.R.R. Tolkien, 1937. The seeds of the classic Lord of the Rings trilogy are sown in this compelling fantasy that introduces readers to Bilbo Baggins, Gandalf and Gollum.

The Hunger Games
by Suzanne Collins, 2008. Each year, the Capitol of Panem forces its 12 districts to draw the names of two youths for the Hunger Games, a ruthless, televised competition to the death. When 16-year-old Katniss’s young sister, Prim, is selected, Katniss volunteers to take her place.
The taut, engrossing action is as much about the loss of humanity as the loss of life; the book (the first in a trilogy) was inspired both by war and reality TV.

I Capture the Castle
by Dodie Smith, 1948. Seventeen-year-old Cassandra’s spirited journal entries about her eccentric family and her own stumble into love read like whispered, nighttime conversations with your best friend.

The Knife of Never Letting Go
by Patrick Ness, 2008. The pace of this science fiction thriller is relentless as a boy and girl run from a town where all thoughts can be heard and the passage to manhood embodies a terrible secret.

The Maestro
by Tim Wynne-Jones, 1995. What would you do if you were forced to choose between your abusive father’s life and the only copy of a brilliant new creation by an eccentric musical genius?

The Maze Runner
by James Dashner, 2009. The initial Lord of the Flies feel to this story of an all-boy society trapped in a maze segues into the gripping ealization that the boys’ frantic attempts to solve the maze are inadequate and each of them will be tested to his limits.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants
by Ann Brashares, 2001. A thrift-store pair of jeans mailed back and forth between four best friends during their first summer apart is witness to the girls’ angst and triumphs.

Treasure Island
by Robert Louis Stevenson, 1883. Inspired by a treasure map doodled by Stevenson’s stepson one rainy afternoon, this story of buried gold and adventure at sea has had a lasting influence on the popular perception of pirates.

Twilight
by Stephenie Meyer, 2005. The book that lit a fire under the paranormal romance genre arrived just in time for Harry Potter graduates who were ready to sink their teeth into something new.

Thank you note from a Pad For Hope student

Dear (Pad For Hope) Donor

My name is Wang Zeqin. I live in (a) village and I have never met a foreigner in my life.

I love using italki to learn English online (using an iPad you donated).

My teacher lives in the United States. We talk using Skype every Friday.

Thank you for your kind donation. You helped me open up a window to the world!”

— Wang Zeqin

A P6 student in Dongguan Primary School, Chaozhou

公益组织免税资格申请攻略

2015-07-20 天祥关爱

天祥关爱历时1个月的材料准备,及5个月的漫长等待,终于获得了非营利组织免税资格。许多公益小伙伴都向天祥小秘询问免税资格申请攻略,于是……小秘整理的攻略来啦!

前方高能,公益组织财务人员快速集合!

1.法律依据

  • 《中华人民共和国企业所得税法》 第二十六条第四款
  • 《中华人民共和国企业所得税法实施条例》 (国务院令第512号)第八十五条的规定
  • 财政部 国家税务总局关于非营利组织企业所得税免税收入问题的通知(财税[2009]122号)
  • 关于开展非营利组织免税资格认定的公告(穗财法〔2012〕 135号)
  • 关于非营利组织免税资格认定管理有关问题的通知(财税[2014]13号)

2.哪些类型的单位可以申请?

事业单位、社会团体、基金会、民办非企业单位、宗教活动场所。

3.什么时候可以办理?

每年二月份向主管企业所得税的税务机关提交申请材料,具体时间可留意税务机关官方网站的通知。

4.非营利组织免税资格的有效期仅一年吗?

不是。有效期为五年, 但每年都需要提交资料备案。

5.申请条件(需同时满足)

  • 从事公益性或者非营利性活动,且活动范围主要在中国境内
  • 取得的收入除用于与该组织正常活动有关的、合理的支出外, 全部用于登记核定或者章程规定的公益性或者非营利性事业
  • 财产及其孳息不用于分配,但不包括合理的工资薪金支出;
  • 按照登记核定或者章程规定,该组织注销后的剩余财产用于公益性
  • 投入人对投入该组织的财产不保留或者不享有任何财产权利;
  • 工作人员工资福利开支控制在规定的比例内 (工作人员平均工资薪金水平不得超过上年度税务登记所在地人均工资水平的两倍);
  • 年检检查结论为“合格” (当年成立除外);
  • 分别核算应纳税收入及其有关的成本、费用、损失应与免税收入及其有关的成本、费用、损失。

6.申请时需要提交哪些材料?

  • 申请表(一式五份)
  • 组织章程
  • 组织登记证、税务登记证复印件
  • 申请前一会计年度的资金来源及使用情况、公益活动和非营利活动的明细情况及申请前一年度审计报告
  • 年检报告(当年新设立的单位无需提交)
  • 年度工作人员平均工资薪金水平的说明书
  • 财政、税务部门要求提供的其他材料

问题来了!“其他材料”是什么鬼?!

财政、税务部门并不会告诉你!往下看,最重要的干货来啦!

7.关于“其他材料”

通常许多小伙伴都会忽视“其他材料”,往往这些材料也很重要。官方并未提供“其他材料”的清单,天祥关爱小秘列了一份清单,供小伙伴们参考~(以申请2014年-2018年的免税资格为例)

  • 基本情况说明

模板:

单位简介,宗旨,业务范围……

2014年1月1日至12月31日,财务状况为:资产xxx元,负债xxx元 ;现金余额xxx元,银行账户余额xxx元。

资金来源如下:捐赠收入xxx元,利息收入xxx元,xx收入xxx元……共xxx元。

资金使用情况如下:业务活动成本xxx元,管理费用xxx元,xx费用xxx元……共xxx元。

  • 从事公益性或者非营利性活动,且活动范围主要在中国境内的说明

参考模板:

本单位按照组织章程从事公益性或者非营利性活动,XXX年从事的公益性或者非营利性活动均在中国境内,主要公益活动如下:

1、……

2、.……

……

  • 财产及其孳息的分配情况说明

参考模板:

本单位成立资金xxx元。2014年度捐赠收入XXX元;资产存入银行产出的孳息xxx元;

本单位2014年度末,剩余财产的分配情况:无分配。

  • 申请免税资格年度的支出情况说明

参考模板:

本单位2014年支出总额为xxx元,支出明细情况如下:

1. 主营业务成本xxx元,包括xxx项目成本xxx元,xxx项目成本xxx元……

2. 业务活动成本xxx元,包括xxx活动经费xxx元,xxx活动经费xxx元……

3. 财务费用xxx元,包括……

4. 管理费用xxx元,包括……

  • 登记核定的章程对于注销后的剩余财产用途的规定

参考模板:

根据本单位章程第XX条规定,本单位注销后的剩余财产分配情况如下:

本单位终止后的剩余财产,用于公益性或者非营利性目的,或者由登记管理机关转赠给与该组织性质、宗旨相同的组织,并向社会公告。

  • 登记核定的章程关于出资人对投入该组织的财产不保留或者享有任何财产权利的规定

参考模板:

根据本单位章程第七条规定,本单位的注册资金为人民币76000元,出资者及其出资金额列表如下:……

出资者对投入本单位的财产不保留或者不享有任何财产权利。

  • 申请免税资格年度的年审情况说明

参考模板(以当年成立为例):

本单位2014年度因于2014年8月成立,未达到年审时间,未能进行登记证年审,成立至今未受到登记管理机关的任何处罚,特此声明。

  • 应税收入及其有关的成本、费用、损失与免税收入及其有关的成本、费用、损失能够分别核算的说明

参考模板:

本单位能够对应税收入及其有关的成本、费用损失与免税收入及其有关的成本费用、损失进行分别核算。2014年度应税和免税收支情况如下:

1、 免税项目收支情况:

收入:

(1) 开办资金xxx元;

(2) 捐赠收入xxx元;

……

支出:

(1) 主营业务成本(xxx项目成本、xxx项目成本……)xxx元;

(2) 业务活动成本(xxx活动成本、xxx活动成本……)xxx元;

……

2、 应税项目收支情况

收入:……(有则如实列明,没有则写“无”)

支出:……(有则如实列明,没有则写“无”)

—— 攻略完结 ——

中国留守儿童超六千万 其中近千万一年都见不到父母

2015-06-18 中国新闻网

腾讯新闻
6月16日,山东威海市文登区实验小学举行“大手牵小手情暖端午节”活动,多名校园妈妈与留守孩子们一起包粽子。

《中国留守儿童心灵状况白皮书(2015)》6月18日在北京发布,《白皮书》指出,中国有近1000万留守儿童“一年到头见不到爸妈”,而父母通过电话等方式跟孩子保持联系、适量的阅读、玩耍等将有助改善留守儿童的“烦乱度”和“迷茫度”,提升留守儿童的心理指标。

《白皮书》对云南、广西、贵州、山东、河北、甘肃六省农村地区的两千多名留守儿童进行问卷调查,分析乡村留守儿童真实的生活和心理状况后指出,全国6100万留守儿童中约15.1%、近1000万孩子一年到头见不到父母,即使在春节也无法团聚。有4.3%的留守儿童甚至一年连父母电话也接不到一次,一年电话联系一到两次的有885万,3个月通话一次的有1519万。

《白皮书》指出,如果(父母)不能保证每3个月与孩子见面一次,孩子的“烦乱度”会陡然提升,对生存现状产生焦虑,而只要保证每周1到2次的联系,孩子的“烦乱度”就会明显下降。

《白皮书》的调查结果还显示,中国留守儿童心理危险系数呈现明显的地区差异:从东到西明显上升,其中西北地区最为严重,无论是“烦乱指数”(对于现状的焦虑)还是“迷茫指数”(对于未来的焦虑)都达到最高,西南地区次之,中部再次,东部最低。

历代iPad配置比较

ipad ipad 2 the new ipad ipad 4 ipad mini iPad Air iPad mini2 iPad Air 2 iPad mini 3
cpu Apple A4 Apple A5 Apple A5X Apple A6X Apple A5 Apple A7 Apple A7 Apple A8X Apple A7
核心数 单核 双核 双核 双核 双核 双核 双核 双核 双核
频率 1G 512MB 1G 1G 512MB 1.3G 1.3G 1.4G 1.3G
Gpu Imagination
PowerVR SGX535
Imagination
PowerVR SGX542
Imagination
PowerVR SGX543MP4
Imagination
PowerVR SGX543MP4
Imagination
PowerVR SGX543
Imagination
PowerVR G6430MP4
Imagination
PowerVR G6430MP4
Imagination
PowerVR GX6850
Imagination
PowerVR G6430MP4
核心数 1核 2核 4核 4核 2核 4核 4核 8核 4核
频率 250Mhz 500Mhz
内存 256M 512M 1G 1G 1G
摄像头 前置+后置 前置+后置 前置+后置 前置+后置 前置+后置 前置+后置 前置+后置 前置+后置
摄像头像素 VGA+70W 30W+500W 120W+500W 120W+500W
屏幕尺寸 9.7寸 9.7寸 9.7寸 9.7寸 7.9英寸 9.7寸 7.9英寸 9.7寸 7.9英寸
屏幕分辨率 1024×768 1024×768 2048×1536 2048×1536 1024×768 2048×1536 2048×1536 2048×1536 2048×1536
重量 692g 613g 652g 652g 312g 469g 331g 437g 331g
长度 242.8mm 241.2mm 241.2mm 241.2mm 200mm 240mm 200mm 240mm 200mm
宽度 189.7mm 185.7mm 185.7mm 185.7mm 134.7mm 169.5mm 134.7mm 169.5mm 134.7mm
厚度 13.4mm 8.8mm 9.5mm 9.4mm 7.2mm 7.5mm 7.5mm 6.1mm 7.5mm
电池容量 4500mAh 6000mAh 11666mAh 11560mAh 4490mAh 8827mAh 6430mAh 7340mAh 6470mAh

“毕马威—安康社区中心”落成

文章来源:中国教育学会 发布时间:2010-6-8 14:55:54

由中国儿童少年基金会和成都市妇联合作援建,毕马威中国主要资助的四川省彭州磁峰镇“毕马威—安康社区中心”于5月17日落成。中国儿基会副理事长程淑琴、毕马威国际副主席夏理逊、毕马威亚太区及中国主席唐家成、英国驻重庆总领事 Nick Whittingham出席活动并讲话。10余位来自毕马威公司及其他赞助单位的高层领导出席仪式。

该项目建筑面积达450平米,根据灾区儿童的身心特点和灾民的实际需求,特别配置了图书馆、培训室、安全应急体验教室等设施,将作为当地少年儿童课外活动和村民职业培训的场所投入使用,也将成为一个实用技术培训的中心、中华传统文化的学习中心、留守流动儿童的关爱中心、志愿者义务服务的公益中心,对于推动乡村社区建设,促进乡村社区教育文化发展起到重要的推进作用。
“毕马威—安康社区中心”显著亮点是项目采用竹框架结构,体现以人为本和可持续发展的绿色乡村建设理念,获得“2009第六届中国人居典范建筑最佳设计方案金奖”, 并将在2010年北京国际绿色智能大会上亮相,可谓领先环保设计理念在西部地区的一次成功实践。由于其鲜明的节能及环保特点,项目作为环保推广案例在上海世界博览会ZED零碳中心展出。
“毕马威—安康社区中心”项目除得到毕马威中国慷慨捐助外,还得到了欧华尔公司董事局、成都中节能环保发展股份有限公司、浙江大庄实业集团、浙江加兰装饰工程有限责任公司等国内外设计、建筑、装饰等领域机构、专家、企业的爱心捐助和鼎力支持。落实仪式上,中国儿基会向爱心捐助单位颁发了证书和奖品。
仪式结束后,总设计师郝林博士带领嘉宾们参观了社区中心。同时,在安全应急体验教室,毕马威志愿者与当地孩子们进行了安全应急互动体验。

“小娜姐姐”的理想:我要做一辈子的志愿者

2013-11-28 13:29:10 来源: 成都全搜索新闻网
编辑: 何锐 责任编辑: 张伟

牛娜是成都市妇女第十四次代表大会代表,同时也是彭州市磁峰镇莲花湖社区儿童之家专职工作者、志愿者。2008年,20岁的牛娜从河南南阳来到四川做了一名志愿者,一干就是5个年头。

“小娜姐姐”和孩子们在一起

成都全搜索新闻网(记者 马丽)11月28日报道 做志愿服务,付出的是爱,收获的也是爱,感受到的则是幸福,牛娜就是这样一个快乐并幸福着的志愿者。2008年,20岁的牛娜从河南南阳来到四川做了一名志愿者,一干就是5个年头。

从灾区到安康社区中心 志愿服务一干便是5年

牛娜是成都市妇女第十四次代表大会代表,同时也是彭州市磁峰镇莲花湖社区儿童之家专职工作者、志愿者。2008年汶川大地震,她跟随洛阳红十字会一起到达四川灾区北川的安置点,一个月后队员们相继离开,而她却选择留下来。在那里,她和同伴们建立板房幼儿园,成立了“爱心植苗服务站”,做起了青少年教育、心理安抚等工作。2008年的春节,牛娜没有回家,而是选择在灾区板房和孩子们在一起。牛娜在北川的志愿服务一直持续到2010年8月底。

然而,离开北川,并非牛娜志愿服务的结束,却是另一个开始。2011年,由中国扶贫基金会推荐,牛娜独自一人来到了彭州市磁峰镇莲水村的“磁峰镇毕马威安康社区中心”担任社区中心的管理和运营工作。磁峰镇位于彭州市西北部山区,距成都市区约70公里,属于典型的浅山深丘区,人均耕地较少,大多数家庭都靠外出打工挣钱养家,由此一大批孩子成为了“留守儿童”。

刚到中心时,牛娜发现由于没有全职人员管理,中心的10几个房间并没有得到很好的使用。室内的摆设杂乱无章,物资匮乏。上任后,她开始召集附近村民和志愿者整理中心、走访村民和学校,联系政府,终于在多方的大力支持下开始了社区中心的日常运营及固定的活动,为周边居民、特别是“留守儿童”提供活动休憩的场所。

不知不觉,在中心服务已经3年了,牛娜成了孩子们口中的“小娜姐姐”,而牛娜则特别喜欢这样的称呼。“中心就像我的家一样,而我可以叫得出经常来中心的几十个孩子、大人的名字。每天早上,听上学路过中心的孩子们喊‘小娜姐姐’都是最快乐的事。”牛娜说。

谈到中心的运营,牛娜感受最深的就是缺人。在人员方面,目前中心仅有牛娜一名全职社工在负责这450平方米社区中心的运营,她迫切希望能再有一名青年社工加入进来,能和她一起为山里的孩子们服务。

感受到爱所以很幸福 坚持一辈子做志愿者

做了5年多的志愿者服务,牛娜感受最深的是这一切让她学会了感受爱、施与爱。去年6月底,牛娜去青海支教,不幸发生了车祸,导致其骨盆粉碎性骨折,在医院躺了三个月。如今,受伤部位还不时会疼痛。但也就是这次车祸,更加坚定牛娜做志愿服务的决心。因为牛娜出车祸的治疗费用,全是捐赠的。

“我一定会坚持下去,守护磁峰的留守儿童,虽然我的力量很渺小,但是相信有了大家的加入和援手,一定会把这份信念和爱传递下去。”当记者问牛娜还会做多久志愿服务的时候,牛娜毫不犹豫的说:“会做一辈子!因为我感受到了爱,所以我很幸福。”

牛娜告诉记者,她是第一次参加成都市的妇女代表大会。“很高兴,感觉自己的工作被认可了。”与此同时,她也有自己的小心愿就是希望家长们能够好好地照顾、关心自己的孩子,能够多腾出一点时间给孩子,让每一个孩子们都拥有一个快乐的童年。